Is living in an organized society preferable for human beings? If yes, what kind of society should we prefer?  In this paper, we explore a middle position between an Aristotelian form of naturalism and a conventionalist account of the formation of a human society. We trace this position back to Cicero (106 BC–43 BC) and argue that Suarez (1548–1617) ought to be seen as a  major proponent of this position. On this view, to live together is something which is congruent to our nature because it is in our nature it is also good for us. However, the members of society need to understand that it is good and choose to live together for that very reason. On this account, human society is something that exists in virtue of consensus and all legitimate political power rests on a form of agreement between the members of such a society. We argue that Ciceronian political philosophy ought to be recognized as a distinct perspective on the role of nature and convention in the formation of a human society in the history of political philosophy.

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