Abstract: (Please note that the paper is in Swedish!) The Swedish government defines ‘qualitative gender equality’ within the area of education and career as the state when women and men have equal opportunities, which is explicated as making choices unconstrained by traditional gender norms. An even distribution of women and men in all professions is then regarded as an indication of unconstrained choices. There are several problems with this view. First, it is difficult to conceptualize equal opportunities. Each alternative career should have the same meaning to men as to women, and be equally realizable for them, in order for the sexes to have the equal opportunities. Today this is not the case. A man who chooses a career as a pre-school teacher will have to cope with several prejudices, which is not the case for women. Also, realization is problematical. In Sweden, three out of four university professors are men. Statistically speaking this alternative is three times easier to realize for a man than a woman. These facts show that gender equality in the quantitative sense rather is a prerequisite for qualitative gender equality, than an indication of unconstrained choices. Secondly, unconstrained choice is no easier to define than equal opportunities. Even though some choices seem to be the product of socialization, we have no idea of what unconstrained choices might be. Women and men always make their choices within society. Thirdly, the hypothesis that unconstrained choices would lead to quantitative gender equality is nothing but a guess. Given that the concept is meaningful, perhaps unconstrained choices would be inconsistent with a gender egalitarian society in the quantitative sense.